Bibliography of Tobacco and the Elderly Articles


Prepared by: Saidy Barinaga-Burch, J.D., Staff Attorney
The Center for Social Gerontology, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan

Most recently updated: April, 1997

While there has been a substantial increase in recent decades in the research and literature concerning tobacco use and the health effects of tobacco use, the focus on tobacco and older persons has been relatively limited. The following bibliography, prepared by The Center for Social Gerontology (TCSG), presents a comprehensive, albeit not all-encompassing, list of recent articles, as well as an ample selection of earlier articles, related to tobacco and the elderly. This is a broad collection of work in the tobacco and the elderly field, to be used as a starting point for research by health care professionals, aging and health care advocates, individuals working in tobacco control and prevention, public policymakers, and others. TCSG presents this bibliography in the hope that others will be encouraged to build on this base of research and expand the literature on this topic.




Table of Contents


  1. Epidemiology of Tobacco Use
  2. Smoking Cessation
    1. Education, Advocacy and Policy
    2. Health Benefits/Effects
    3. Smoking Cessation Strategies, Guidelines and Programs
  3. Role of Health Care Providers in Tobacco Control
  4. Health Effects of Tobacco Use
    1. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease
    2. Cancer
    3. Cardiovascular
    4. Cognitive Function
    5. Dental Disease/Oral Health
    6. Diabetes
    7. Drug Interaction
    8. Endocrine/Thyroid/Sexual
    9. Generally
    10. Lung Function and Disease
    11. Mortality
    12. Muscle, Bone and Mobility
    13. Nutrition
    14. Peptic Ulcers and Gastrointestinal Disorders
    15. Safety
    16. Skin and Hair
    17. Stress, Anxiety and Depression
    18. Stroke
    19. Vision
  5. Economics of Tobacco Use, Tobacco-Related Disease and Tobacco Control
  6. Passive Smoking
  7. Politics of Tobacco Control






I. Epidemiology of Tobacco Use


Anderson, E.G. "'These Foolish Things': Reflections on Older Smokers and Drinkers." Geriatrics (1991) 46:71-2.

Andersson, L., and J. Stanich. "Life Events and Their Impact on Health Attitudes and Health Behavior." Arch Gerontol Geriatr (1996) 23:163-177.

Colsher, P.L., R.B. Wallace, P.R. Pomrehn, and A.Z. LaCroix. "Demographic and Health Characteristics of Elderly Smokers: Results from Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies for the Elderly." Am J Prev Med (1990) 6:61-70.

D'Avanzo, B., C. La Vecchia, and E. Negri. "Age at Starting Smoking and Number of Cigarettes Smoked." Ann Epidemiol (1994) 4:455-9.

Falit, J.L., "Cigar Advertising: Targeting 'Baby-Boomers' and Older Adults." Tobacco Control (1997) 6:240-242.

Gariballa, S.E., S.M. Peet, M.D. Fotherby, S.G. Parker, and C.M. Castleden. "The Knowledge of Hospital Patients about Vascular Diseases and Their Risk Factors." Postgrad Med J (1996) 72:605-8.

Gillis, K.J., and J.P. Hirdes. "The Quality of Life Implications of Health Practices Among Older Adults. Evidence from the 1991 Canadian General Social Survey." Canadian Journal on Aging (1996) 15:299-314.

Graham, K., V. Carver, and P.J. Brett. "Alcohol and Drug Use by Older Women: Results of a National Survey." Canadian Journal on Aging (1995) 14:769-791.

Guralnik, J.J., and G.A.. Kaplan. "Predictors of Healthy Aging: Prospective Evidence from the Alameda County Study." Am J Public Health (1989) 79:703-708.

Husten, C.G., D.M. Shelton, J.H. Chrismon, Yun-Chen W Lin, P. Mowery, F.A. Powell. "Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation Among Older Adults: United States, 1965-94." Tobacco Control (1997) 6:175-180.

Jennison, K.M., and K.A. Johnson. "White Collar Occupational Stress, Heavy Drinking-Smoking in Later Life and the Moderating Effects of Social Support: A Longitudinal Study of Older Men." [Paper] American Sociological Association (ASA) (1994).

Jensen, J., M.A. Counte, and G.L. Glandon. "Elderly Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Maintenance." Prev Med (1992) 21:483-497.

Joseph, C.L. "Alcohol and Drug Misuse in the Nursing Home." Int J Addict (1995) 30:1953-1984.

King, A.C., C.B. Taylor, and W.L. Haskell. "Smoking in Older Women. Is Being Female a 'Risk Factor' for Continued Cigarette Use?" Arch Intern Med (1990) 150:1841-6.

Lockery, S.A., and E.P. Stanford. "Physical Activity and Smoking: Gender Comparisons Among Older African American Adults." J Health Care Poor Underserved (1996) 7:232-51.

Lubben, J.E., P.G. Weiler, and I. Chi. "Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Health Practices of the Elderly Poor." J Clin Epidemiol (1989) 42:725-733.

Lubben, J.E., P.G. Weiler, and I. Chi. "Health Practices of the Elderly Poor." Am J Public Health (1989) 79:731-4.

Markides, K.S., and S.A. Black. "Aging and Health Behaviors in Mexican Americans." Fam Community Health (1996) 19:11-18.

Orleans, C.T., B.K. Rimer, S. Cristinzio, M.K. Keintz, and L. Fleisher. "A National Survey of Older Smokers: Treatment Needs of a Growing Population." Health Psychol (1991) 10:343-351.

Pierce, J., G. Giovino, E. Hatziandreu, and D. Shopland. "National Age and Sex Differences in Quitting Smoking." J Psychoactive Drugs (1989) 21:293-298.

Potts, M.K., M. Hurwicz, M.S. Goldstein, and E. Berkanovic. "Social Support, Health-Promotive Beliefs, and Preventive Health Behaviors Among the Elderly." J Appl Gerontol (1992) 11:425-440.

Rimer, B.K., and C.T. Orleans. "Older Smokers." Nicotine Addiction: Principles and Management. Ed. C.T. Orleans and J. Slade. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 385-395.

Rimer, B.K., C.T. Orleans, M.K. Keintz, S. Cristinzio, and L. Fleisher. "The Older Smoker: Status, Challenges and Opportunities for Intervention." Chest (1990) 97:547-53.

Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate. Developments in Aging, Vol. 3. Washington, D.C. U.S. Government Printing Office, 10, 1986.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville Maryland: Centers for Disease Control, Office on Smoking and Health, 1984. (DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 84-5024).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Chronic Obstructive Lung disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Maryland: Centers for Disease Control, Office on Smoking and Health, 1984. (DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 84-50205).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Maryland: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smoking and Health, 1989. (DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 89-8411, prepublication version).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "Long-term Psychological and Behavioral Consequences and Correlates of Smoking Cessation." In The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Maryland: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smoking and Health, 1990. (DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 90-8416).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Smoking and Health: A National Status Report. Rockville, Maryland: Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, 1990. (DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 87-8396).

Wallace, S.P., V. Villa, A. Moon, and J.E. Lubben. "Health Practices of Korean Elderly People. National Health Promotion Priorities and Minority Community Needs." Fam Community Health (1996) 19:29-42.

Weaver, G.D., and L.E. Gary. "Correlates of Health-Related Behaviors in Older African American Adults. Implications for Health Promotion." Fam Community Health, (1996) 19:43-57.


II. SMOKING CESSATION


A.Education, Advocacy and Policy

Aging and Health Promotion: Marketing Research for Public Education, Final Report of Contract No. 282-83-0105, ODPHP, May 1984.

American Association of Retired Persons, Health Advocacy Services and Fox Chase Cancer Center, "Highlights of the 'Clear Horizons' Survey Findings," 1989.

Bal, D.G., and J. Lloyd. "Advocacy and Government Action for Cancer Prevention in Older Persons." Cancer (1994) 74:2067-70.

Bergman, J.A., J.L. Falit. "Non-Smoking Policies, Tobacco Education, and Smoking Cessation Programmes in Facilities Serving the Elderly in Michigan, United States." Tobacco Control (1997) 6:194-198.

Cohen, D.L., and S. Fowlie. "Changing Lifelong Habits of Elderly People." [Letter] BMJ (1992) 304:1055-6.

Kaplan, G.A., and M.N. Haan. "Is There a Role for Prevention Among the Elderly?" Aging and Health Care: Social Science and Policy Perspectives. Ed. M.G. Ory and K. Bond. London: Tavistock, 1989. 27-52.

Keintz, M.K., B. Rimer, L. Fleisher, and P. Engstrom. "Educating Older Adults About Their Increased Cancer Risk." Gerontologist (1988) 28:487-90.

Lave, J.R., D.G. Ives, N.D. Traven, and L.H. Kuller. "Participation in Health Promotion Programs by the Rural Elderly." Am J Prev Med (1995) 11:46-53.

National Institutes of Health, Tobacco and the Clinician. Interventions for Medical and Dental Practice. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1994. (NIH Publication No. 94-3693).

Office on Smoking and Health. Smoking and Older Americans: Communication Strategies Background Paper. Washington, D.C.: Public Health Service, 1989.

Orleans, C.T., C. Jepson, N. Resch, and B.K. Rimer. "Quitting Motives and Barriers Among Older Smokers. The 1986 Adult Use of Tobacco Survey Revisited." Cancer (1994) 74:2055-2061.

Orleans, C. T., B.K. Rimer, S. Cristinzio et al. Smoking Patterns and Quitting Motives, Barriers and Strategies Among Older Smokers Aged 50-74: A Report for the American Association of Retired Persons. Philadelphia, PA: Fox Chase Cancer Center, 1990.

Pierce, J., G. Giovino, E. Hatziandreu, and D. Shopland. "National Age and Sex Differences in Quitting Smoking." J Psychoactive Drugs (1989) 21:293-298.

Rimer, B.K. Health Promotion and Aging, Smoking Among Older Adults: The Problems, Consequences and Possible Solutions. Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Rimer, B.K., C.T. Orleans, M.K. Keintz, S. Cristinzio, and L. Fleisher. "The Older Smoker: Status, Challenges and Opportunities for Intervention." Chest (1990) 97:547-553.

Rubenstein, L. "Targeting Health Advocacy Efforts Toward the Older Population." Cancer (1991) 68:2519-2524.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Surgeon General's Workshop Health Promotion and Aging: Proceedings. Ed. F.G. Abdellah, and S.R. Moore. Public Health Service, 1988.

Weingarten S.R., E. Stone, A. Green, et al. "A Study of Patient Satisfaction and Adherence to Preventive Care Practice Guidelines." Am J Med (1995) 99:590-6.

B. Health Benefits/Effects

"Brain Blood Flow Better if Elderly Quit Smoking." Geriatrics (1985) 40:21.

Cox, J.L. "Smoking Cessation in the Elderly Patient." Clin Chest Med (1993) 14:423-8.

Dale, L.C., D. Olsen, D. Schroeder, et al. "Smoking Cessation, Functional Status Outcomes, and Survival in Elderly Patients Receiving Treatment for Nicotine Dependence." [Meeting abstract.] J Addict Dis (1995) 14:A6.

Davenport, J., and K. Whittaker. "Secondary Prevention in Elderly Survivors of Heart Attacks." Am Fam Physician (1988) 38:216-224.

"Elderly Can Benefit from Smoking Cessation." Geriatrics (1985) 40:30.

Forman, R., and W.S. Aronow. "Management of Postmyocardial Infarction in the Elderly Patient." Clin Geriatr Med (1996) 12:169-80.

Gannon, K. "Simple Lifestyle Changes Can Help Prevent Osteoporosis." Drug Topics (1993) 137:34+.

Garvey, A.J., R.Bosse, R.J. Glynn, and B. Rosner. "Smoking Cessation in a Prospective Study of Healthy Adult Males: Effects of Age, Time Period, and Amount Smoked." Am J Public Health (1983) 73:446-50.

Gourlay, S.G., and N.L. Benowitz. "The Benefits of Stopping Smoking and the Role of Nicotine Replacement Therapy in Older Patients." Drugs Aging (1996) 9:8-23.

Hermanson, B., G.S. Omenn, R.A. Kronmal, and B.J. Gersh. "Beneficial Six-Year Outcome of Smoking Cessation in Older Men and Women with Coronary Artery Disease." New Eng J Med (1988) 319:1365-1369.

Higgins, M.W., P.L. Enright, R.A. Kronmal, M.B. Schenker, H. Anton-Culver, and M. Lyles. "Smoking and Lung Function in Elderly Men and Women." JAMA (1993) 269:2741-2748.

Hirdes, J.P., and C.J. Maxwell. "Smoking Cessation and Quality of Life Outcomes Among Older Adults in the Campbell's Survey on Well-Being." Can J Public Health (1994) 85:99-102.

Karvonen, M.J. "Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among the Elderly." Bull World Health Organ (1988) 66:7-14.

LaCroix, A.Z., and G.S. Omenn. "Older Adults and Smoking." Clin Geriatr Med (1992) 8:69-87.

Lawren, B. "Five Steps to a Healthy Heart." New Choices for Retirement Living (1992) 32:44-47.

Levitt, S. "It's Never Too Late to Stop Smoking." New Choices for the Best Years (1990) 30:69-72.

Lie, J.T. "Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease) in an Elderly Man After Cessation of Cigarette Smoking--a Case Report." Angiology (1987) 38:864-7.

Mellstrom, D., A. Rundgren, R. Jagenburg, B. Steen, and A. Svanborg. "Tobacco Smoking, Ageing and Health Among the Elderly: A Longitudinal Population Study of 70-year-old Men and an Age Cohort Comparison." Age Ageing (1982) 11:45-58.

Muller, W.A. "Effect of Smoking Cessation on Mortality of Older Men and Women with Coronary Artery Disease." J Insur Med (1994) 26:319-23.

"Older Smokers Can Benefit from Kicking the Habit." Geriatrics (1991) 46:23.

Orleans, C.T., N. Resch, E. Noll, et al. "Use of Transdermal Nicotine in a State-Level Prescription Plan for the Elderly. A First Look at 'Real-World Patch Users." JAMA (1994) 271:601-607.

Petty, Thomas L. "It's Never Too Late to Stop Smoking: But How Old Are Your Lungs?" JAMA (1993) 269:2785.

Rados, B. "Women's Health: On Avoiding the Nursing Home." FDA Consum (1986) 20:30-1.

Raloff, J. "Older Smokers Still Helped by Quitting." Sci News (1988)134:342.

Rogers, R.L., J.S. Meyer, B.W. Judd, and K.F. Mortel. "Abstention from Cigarette Smoking Improves Cerebral Perfusion Among Elderly Chronic Smokers." JAMA (1985) 253:2970-2974.

Salive, M.E., and D.G. Blazer. "Depression and Smoking Cessation in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study." J Am Geriatr Soc (1993) 41:1313-6.

"Smoking Cessation Offers Significant Benefits for Older Adults." Geriatrics (1992) 47:91.

"Smoking: Even the Elderly Can Benefit from Quitting." Geriatrics (1985) 40:91.

Speroff, L. "Preventive Health Care for Older Women." Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud (1996) 41:64-8.

Stamler, J. "Risk Factor Modification Trials: Implications for the Elderly." Eur Heart J (1988) 9(Suppl):9-53.

Tell, G.S., G. Howard, W.M. McKinney, and J.F. Toole. "Cigarette Smoking Cessation and Extracranial Carotid Atherosclerosis." JAMA (1989) 261:1178-1180.

Tong, L., M.R. Sptiz, J.J. Fueger, and C.A. Amos. "Lung Carcinoma in Former Smokers." Cancer (1996) 78:1004-10.

Wannamethee, S.G., A.G. Shaper, P.H. Whincup, and M. Walker. "Smoking Cessation and the Risk of Stroke in Middle-aged Men." JAMA (1996) 274:155-160.

Williams, M.A. "Cardiovascular Risk-factor Reduction in Elderly Patients with Cardiac Disease." Phys Ther (1996) 76:469-80.

C.Smoking CessationStrategies, Guidelines, and Programs

Boyd, N.R. "Smoking Cessation: A Four-Step Plan to Help Older Patients Quit." Geriatrics (1996) 51:52-7, quiz 58.

Burton, L.C., M.J. Paglia, P.S. German, S. Shapiro, and A.M. Damiano. "The Effect Among Older Persons of a General Preventive Visit on Three Health Behaviors: Smoking, Excessive Alcohol Drinking, and Sedentary Lifestyle." Prev Med (1995) 24:492-497.

"Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT): II. Changes in Adult Cigarette Smoking Prevalence." Am J Public Health (1995) 85:193-200.

Dale, L.C., D.A. Olsen, C.A. Patten, D.R. Schroeder, I.T. Croghan, R.D. Hurt, K.P. Offord, T.D. Wolter. "Predictors of Smoking Cessation Among Elderly Smokers Treated for Nicotine Dependence." Tobacco Control (1997) 6:181-187.

Glynn, T.J., G. Boyd, and J. Gruman. Self-Guided Strategies for Smoking Cessation. Washington, D.C.: National Cancer Institute, 1991. Publication NIG 91-3104.

Grembowski, D., D. Patrick, P. Diehr, and M. Durham. "Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Among Older Adults." J Health Soc Behav (1993) 34:89-104.

Harvey, R. "Helping the Long-Term Smoker Quit." Senior Patient (1989) 36-44.

Huijbrechts, I.P., H.J. Duivenvoorden, J.W. Deckers, et al. "Modification of Smoking Habits Five Months After Myocardial Infarction: Relationship with Personality Characteristics." J Psychosom Res (1996) 40:369-78.

Mass Home Care. Quitting Time. 1994. (Video targeted at long-term smokers. Available for $30 from Mass Home Care, 24 Third Ave., Burlington, MA 01301; (617) 272-7177, ext. 281.

Miller, C.A. "Helping Older Adults Become Nicotine Free." Geriatr Nurs (1996) 17:96-7.

Morgan, G.D., E.L. Noll, C.T. Orleans, B.K. Rimer, K. Amfoh, and G. Bonney. "Reaching Midlife and Older Smokers: Tailored Interventions for Routine Medical Care." Prev Med (1996) 25:346-54.

National Institutes of Health, Tobacco and the Clinician. Interventions for Medical and Dental Practice. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1994. NIH Publication No. 94-3693.

Orleans, C.T., B. Rimer, L. Fleisher, M.K. Keintz, J. Telepchak, and R. Robinson. Clear Horizons: A Quit Smoking Guide Especially for Those 50 and Older. Philadelphia: Fox Chase Cancer Center, 1994.

Orleans, C.T., N. Resch, and E. Noll. "Use of Transdermal Nicotine in a State-Level Prescription Plan for the Elderly: A First Look at 'Real-World' Patch Users." JAMA (1994) 271:601-7.

Ossip-Klein, D.J., A.M. Carosella, D.A. Krusch. "Self-Help Interventions for Older Smokers." Tobacco Control (1997) 6:188-193.

Pastorino, C.A., and T. Dickey. "Health Promotion for the Elderly: Issues and Program Planning." Orthop Nurs (1990) 9:36-42.

Prohaska, T.R., and M. Glasser. "Older Adult Health Behavior Change in Response to Symptom Experiences." Advances in Medical Sociology (1994) 4:141-161.

Rimer, B.K., and C.T. Orleans. "Tailoring Smoking Cessation for Older Adults." Cancer (1994) 74:2051-2054.

Rustin, T. Quit and Stay Quit: A Personal Program to Stop Smoking. Minnesota: Hazelden, 1991.

Salive, M.E., J. Cornoni-Huntley, A.Z. LaCroix, A.M. Ostfeld, R.B. Wallace, and C.H. Hennekens. "Predictors of Smoking Cessation and Relapse in Older Adults." Am J Public Health (1992) 82:1268-1271.

Shmueli, A. "Smoking Cessation and Health -- A Comment." J Health Econ (1996) 15:751-54.

Vetter, N.J., and D. Ford. "Smoking Prevention Among People Aged 60 and Over: A Randomized Controlled Trial." Age Ageing (1990) 19:164-168.

Wood, John. "Quitting Secrets of Older Smokers." Mod Maturity (1989) 32:28.


III. Role of Health Care Providers in Tobacco Control

Naranjo, C.A., N. Herrmann, V. Ozdemir, and K.E. Bremner. "Abuse of Prescription and Licit Psychoactive Substances by the Elderly--Issues and Recommendations." CNS Drugs (1995) 4:207-221.

Rimer, B.K., and C.T. Orleans. "The Family Physician's Role in Helping Older Smokers Quit." [Editorial.] Am Fam Physician (1990) 42:959-960, 962, 965.

Sennott-Miller, L., E.W. Kligman. "Healthier Lifestyles: How to Motivate Older Patients to Change." Geriatrics (1992) 47:52-9.


IV. Health Effects of Tobacco Use

A. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease

Brenner, D.E., W.A. Kukull, G. van Belle, et al. "Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Alzheimer's Disease in a Population-Based Case-Control Study." Neurology (1993) 43:293-300.

Hebert, L.E., D.A. Scherr, L.A. Beckett, H.H. Funkenstein, M.S. Albert, M.J. Chown, and D.A. Evans. "Relation of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption to Incidence of Alzheimer's Disease." Am J Epidemiol (1992) 135:347-55.

Graves, A.B., C.M. van Duijn, V. Chandra, et al. "Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption as Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease: A Collaborative Re-Analysis of Case-Control Studies." Int J Epidemiol (1991) 20 Suppl 2:S48-57.

Gray, R., A.S. Rajan, K.A. Radcliffe, M. Yakehiro, and J.A. Dani. "Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission Enhanced by Low Concentrations of Nicotine." Nature (1996) 383:713-716.

Jones, G.M., B.J. Sahakian, R. Levy, D.M. Warburton, and J.A. Gray. "Effects of Acute Subcutaneous Nicotine on Attention, Information Processing and Short-Term Memory in Alzheimer's Disease." Psychopharmacology (Berl) (1992) 108:485-94.

Lee, P.N. "Smoking and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence." Neuroepidemiology (1994) 13:131-44.

Mayeux, R., M.X. Tang, K. Marder, L.J. Cote, and Y. Stern. "Smoking and Parkinson's Disease." Mov Disord (1994) 9:207-12.

Morens, D.M., A. Grandinetti, J.W. Davis, G.W. Ross, L.R. White, and D. Reed. "Evidence Against the Operation of Selective Mortality in Explaining the Association between Cigarette Smoking and Reduced Occurrence of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease." Am J Epidemiol (1996) 144:400-4.

Morens, D.M., A. Grandinetti, D. Reed, and L.R. White. "Smoking-Associated Protection from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease." [Letter; Comment]. Lancet (1994) 343:356-7.

Morens, D.M., A. Grandinetti, D. Reed, L.R. White, and G.W. Ross. "Cigarette Smoking and Protection from Parkinson's Disease: False Association or Etiologic Clue?" Neurology (1995) 45:1041-51.

Rocca, W. "Frequency, Distribution and Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease." Nurs Clin North Am (1994) 29:101-111.

Riggs, J.E. "The 'Protective' Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. Quagmire or Opportunity for Neuroepidemiology?" Neurol Clin (1996) 14:353-8.

Sahakian, B., G. Jones, R. Levy, J. Gray, and D. Warburton. "The Effects of Nicotine on Attention, Information Processing, and Short-Term Memory in Patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type." Br J Psychiatry (1989) 154:797-800.

Salomon, A.R., K.J. Marcinowski, R.P. Friedland, and M.G. Zagorski. "Nicotine Inhibits Amyloid Formation by the ß-Peptide." Biochemistry (1996) 35:13568-13578.

Shaji, S., K. Promodu, T. Abraham, K.J. Roy, and A. Verghese. "An Epidemiological Study of Dementia in a Rural Community in Kerala, India." Br J Psychiatry (1996) 168:745-9.

B. Cancer

Baker, S.R., and C. J. Krause. "Carcinoma of the Lip." Laryngoscope (1980) 90:19-27.

Blomeke, B., W. Lensing, A.M. Harrington, E.D. Bowman, M.S. Greenblatt, and P.G. Shields. "Genetic Polymorphisms in Elderly Smokers." [Meeting abstract.] Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1995) 36:A708

Brown, J.K. "Gender, Age, Usual Weight, and Tobacco Use as Predictors of Weight Loss in Patients with Lung Cancer." Oncol Nurs Forum (1993) 20:466-72.

Chetty, R., S.P. Clark, and G.A. Pitson. "Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas." Pathology (1993) 25:240-2.

Ishida, T., H. Yokoyama, S. Kaneko, K. Sugio, and K. Sugimachi. "Long-Term Results of Operation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Elderly." Ann Thorac Surg (1990) 50:919-22.

Koch, W.M., H. Patel, J. Brennan, J.O. Boyle, and D. Sidransky. "Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck in the Elderly." Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg (1995) 121:262-5

Kuriakose, M., M. Sankaranarayanan, M.K. Nair, et al. "Comparison of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Younger and Older Patients in India." Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol (1992) 28B:113-20

Lederle, F.A., K.L. Nichol, and C.M. Parenti. "Bronchoscopy to Evaluate Hemoptysis in Older Men with Nonsuspicious Chest Roentgenograms." Chest (1989) 95:1043-7.

MacMahon, B. "Risk Factors for Cancer of the Pancreas." Cancer (1982) 50:2676-2680.

Maier, H., A. Dietz, U. Gewelke, W.D. Heller, and H. Weidauer. "Tobacco and Alcohol and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer." Clin Investig (1992) 70:320-327.

Mizushima, Y., T. Kashii, Y. Yoshida, S. Sugiyama, and M. Kobayashi. "Characteristics of Lung Cancer in the Elderly." Anticancer Res (1996) 16:3181-4.

Price, T.F., R.L. Payne, and M.G. Oberleitner. "Familial Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana." Cancer Nurs (1996) 19:275-82.

Sandler, D.P., D.L. Shore, J.R. Anderson, et al. "Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Acute Leukemia: Associations with Morphology and Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Bone Marrow." J Natl Cancer Inst (1993) 85:1994-2003.

Schwartz, A.G., and G.M. Swanson. "Lung Carcinoma in African Americans and Whites. A Population-based Study in Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan." Cancer (1997) 79:45-52.

Shibata, A., T.M. Mack, A. Paganini-Hill, R.K. Ross, and B.E. Henderson. "A Prospective Study of Pancreatic Cancer in the Elderly." Int J Cancer (1994) 58:46-9.

Sridhar, K.S., and W.A. Raub, Jr. "Present and Past Smoking History and Other Predisposing Factors in 100 Lung Cancer Patients." Chest (1992) 101:19-25.

Tong, L., M.R. Spitz, J.J. Fueger, and C.A. Amos. "Lung Carcinoma in Former Smokers." Cancer (1996) 78:1004-10.

Yu, H., R.E. Harris, G.C. Kabat, and E.L. Wynder. "Cigarette smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Primary Liver Cancer: A Case-Control Study in the USA." Int J Cancer (1988) 42:325-328.

C. Cardiovascular

Abrams, J., B.S. Vela, D.B. Coultas, S.A. Samaan, D. Malhotra, and R.J. Roche. "Coronary Risk Factors and Their Modification: Lipids, Smoking, Hypertension, Estrogen, and the Elderly." Curr Probl Cardiol (1995) 20:533-610.

Abramson, J.H. "Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly." Public Health Rev (1985) 13:165-233.

Abramson, J.H. "The Hazard of Persistent Cigarette Smoking in Later Life." Am J Med Sci (1977) 274:35-43.

Alcorn, H.G., S.K. Wofson, Jr., K. Sutton-Tyrrell, L.H. Kuller, and D. O'Leary. "Risk Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Older Adults Enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (1996) 16:963-70.

Applegate, W.B., J.P. Hughes, and R. Vander Zwaag. "Case-Control Study of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the Elderly." J Clin Epidemiol (1991) 44:409-15.

Aronow, W.S., and C. Ahn. "Risk Factors for New Coronary Events in a Large Cohort of Very Elderly Patients with and without Coronary Artery Disease." Am J Cardiol (1996) 77:864-6.

Aronow, W.S., A.H. Herzig, F. Etienne, P D'Alba, and J. Ronquillo. "41-Month Follow-Up of Risk Factors Correlated with New Coronary Events in 708 Elderly Patients." J Am Geriatr Soc (1989) 37:501-506.

Aronow, W.S., and I. Kronzon. "Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors in Elderly Blacks and Whites." J Am Geriatr Soc (1991) 39:567-70.

Aronow, W.S., F.F. Sales, F. Etienne, and N.H. Lee. "Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Its Correlation with Risk Factors for Peripheral Arterial Disease in Elderly Patients in a Long-Term Health Care Facility." Am J Cardiol (1988) 62:644-646.

Aronow, W.S., L. Starling, F. Etienne, et al. "Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in Persons Older than 62 Years in a Long-Term Health Care Facility." Am J Cardiol (1986) 57:518-20.

Auerbach, D., and L. Garfinkel. "Atherosclerosis and Aneurysm of the Aorta in Relation to Smoking Habits and Age." Chest (1980) 78:805-809.

Barrett-Conner E., L. Suarez, K. Khaw, et al. "Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factors After Age 50." J Chronic Dis (1984) 37:903-908.

Benfante, R.J., D.M. Reed, C.J. MacLean, and K. Yano. "Risk Factors in Middle Age that Predict Early and Late Onset of Coronary Heart Disease." J Clin Epidemiol (1989) 42:95-104.

Benfante, R., L.J. Hwang, K. Masaki, and J.D. Curb. "To What Extent Do Cardiovascular Risk Factor Values Measured in Elderly Men Represent Their Midlife Values Measured 26 Years Earlier?" Am J Epidemiol (1994) 140:206-16.

Benfante, R., D. Reed, and J. Frank. "Do Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors Measured in the Elderly Have the Same Predictive Roles as in the Middle Aged. Comparisons of Relative and Attributable Risks." Ann Epidemiol (1992 2:273-82.

Benfante, R., D. Reed, and J. Frank. "Does Cigarette Smoking Have an Independent Effect on Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in the Elderly?" Am J Public Health (1991) 81:897-9.

Bots, M.L., P.J. Breslau, E. Briet, et al. "Cardiovascular Determinants of Carotid Artery Disease. The Rotterdam Elderly Study." Hypertension (1992) 19:717-20.

Bucher, H.C., and D.R. Ragland. "Socioeconomic Indicators and Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease and Cancer: A 22-Year Follow-Up of Middle-Aged Men." Am J Public Health (1995) 85:1231-1236.

Castelli, W.P., W.F. Wilson, D. Levy, and K. Anderson. "Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Elderly." Am J Cardiol (1989) 63:12H-19H.

Chiodera, P., L. Capretti, and M. Marchesi. "Abnormal Arginine Vasopressin Response to Cigarette Smoking and Metoclopramide (But Not to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia) in Elderly Subjects." J Gerontol (1991) 46:M6-10.

Corti, M.C., J.M. Guralnik, and C. Bilato. "Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Older Persons." Aging (Milano) (1996) 8:75-89.

Curb, J.D., K. Masaki, B.L. Rodriguez, et al. "Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Elderly. The Honolulu Heart Program." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (1996) 16:1495-500.

Dempsey, R.J., and R.W. Moore. "Amount of Smoking Independently Predicts Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis Severity." Stroke (1992) 23:693-6.

Enright, P.L., B.J. Ward, R.P. Tracy, and E.C. Lasser. "Asthma and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study Research Group." J Asthma (1996) 33:45-53.

Fabris, F., M. Zanocchi, M. Bo, et al. "Carotid Plaque, Aging, and Risk Factors. A Study of 457 Subjects." Stroke (1994) 25:1133-40.

Fiandra, U., M. Bo, G. Fonte, G. Casoli, and E. Ferrario. [Associations Between Arterial Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subjects Over 65 Years of Age.] Recenti Prog Med (1995) 86:147-54. [Published in Italian.]

Fletcher, A.E., and C.J. Bulpitt. "Epidemiological Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly." J Hypertens Suppl (1992) 10:S51-8.

Frost, P.H., B.R. Davis, A.J. Burlando, et al. "Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Men and Women Aged 60 Years and Older: Findings from the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program." Circulation (1996) 94:26-34.

George, G., S. O'Mahony, and K. Woodhouse. "Age, Smoking and the Activity of the Mono-Oxygenase Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase in Isolated Human Peripheral Blood Monocytes." Age Ageing (1994) 23:421-4.

Hamm, V.P., M. Bazargan, and A.R. Barbre. "Life-Style and Cardiovascular Health Among Urban Black Elderly." J Appl Gerontology (1993) 12:155-169.

Harris, T., E.F. Cook, W.B. Kannel, and L. Goldman. "Proportional Hazards Analysis of Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Individuals Aged 65 or Older: the Framingham Heart Study." J Am Geriatr Soc (1988) 36:1023-1028.

Hashimoto, H. "Enhanced Elevation of Blood Pressure During Cigarette Smoking in the Elderly." Jpn Circ J (1993) 57:955-9.

Hennekens, C., J. Buring, and S. Mayrent. "Smoking and Aging in Coronary Heart Disease." Smoking and Aging. Ed. R. Bosse, and C. Rose. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1984.

Jajich, C.L., A.M. Ostfeld, and D.H. Freeman. "Smoking and Heart Disease Mortality in the Elderly." JAMA (1984) 252:2831-34.

Jensen, E.W., E. Eldrup, H. Kelbaek, S.L. Nielsen, and N.J. Christensen. "Venous Plasma Noradrenaline Increases with Age: Correlation to Total Blood Volume and Long-Term Smoking Habits." Clin Physiol (1993) 13:99-109.

Jensen, E.W., K. Espersen, I.L. Kanstrup, and N.J. Christensen. "Plasma Noradrenaline and Ageing: Effects of Smoking Habits." Eur J Clin Invest (1996) 26:839-46.

Jensen, E.W., K. Espersen, I.L. Kanstrup, and N.J. Christensen. "Basal and Exercise-Induced Changes in Plasma Catecholamines: Relationship to Age, Smoking Habits and Sampling Times." Clin Physiol (1995) 15:299-305.

Jensen, E.W., K. Espersen, J.H. Kundsen, and S.L. Nielsen. "Increased Transcapillary Escape Rate of Albumin in Elderly Subjects Due to Long-Term Smoking Habits." Clin Physiol (1995) 15:159-67.

Kannel, W.B. "Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly: An Assessment of Risk Factors." Cardiovasc Clin (1992) 22:9-22.

Kario, K., T. Matsuo, and K. Nakao. "Cigarette Smoking Increases the Mean Platelet Volume in Elderly Patients with Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis." Clin Lab Haematol (1992) 14:281-7.

Kawamoto, R., and M. Abe. [Risk Factors Related to the Wall Thickness of the Common Carotid Artery in Elderly Patients.] Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi (1996) 33:835-9. [Published in Japanese.]

Larson, M.G. "Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Elderly: The Framingham Heart Study." Stat Med (1995) 14:1745-56.

Lok, N.S., and C.P. Lau. "Prevalence of Palpitations, Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Associated Risk Factors in Ambulant Elderly." Int J Cardiol (1996) 54:231-6.

Lowik, M.R., J. Odink, F.J. Kok, and T. Ockhuizen. "Hematocrit and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Elderly Men and Women (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)." Gerontology (1992) 38:205-13.

Mennen, L.I., J.C. Witteman, J.M. Geleijnse, R.P. Stolk, M.C. Visser, and D.E. Grobbee. [Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly; the ERGO Study (Erasmus Rotterdam Health and the Elderly)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (1995) 139:1983-8. [Published in Dutch.]

Miettinen O., R. Neff, and H. Jick. "Cigarette Smoking and Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction: Rate Ratio in Relation to Age, Sex, and Predisposing Conditions." Am J Epidemiol (1976) 103:30.

O'Leary, D.H., J.F. Polak, R.A. Kronmal, et al. "Thickening of the Carotid Wall. A Marker for Atherosclerosis in the Elderly? Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group." Stroke (1996) 27:224-31.

Poulter, N.R. "Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: 'Clustering' in the Older Hypertensive Man." Br J Clin Pract Symp Suppl (1994) 74:4-7.

Rolland, P.Y., K.P. Baliga, J.C. Rice, and M.D. Kerstein. "Lower Limb Embolus: A Near-Lethal Disease After Age 75 Years." South Med J (1989) 82:178-81.

Saga, T., T. Aoyama, and T. Takekashi. [Changes in the Number and Volume of Platelets in Male Elderly Persons, and Effects of Various Factors on Them.] Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi (1995) 32:270-6.

Salbas, K. "Effect of Acute Smoking on Red Blood Cell Deformability in Healthy Young and Elderly Non-smokers, and Effect of Verapamil on Age- and Acute Smoking-Induced Change in Red Blood Cell Deformability." Scand J Clin Lab Invest (1994) 54:411-6.

Seeman, T., C. Mendes de Leon, L. Berkman, and A. Ostfeld. "Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Among Older Men and Women: A Prospective Study of Community-Dwelling Elderly." Am J Epidemiol (1993) 138:1037-49.

Seltzer, C.C. "Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease in the Elderly." Am J Med Sci (1975) 269:309-315.

Sharp, D.S., R.D. Abbott, C.M. Burchfiel, et al. "Plasma-Fibrinogen and Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly Japanese-American Men." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (1996) 16:262-268.

Siegel, D., L. Kuller, N.B. Lazarus, et al. "Predictors of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Pilot Project." Am J Epidemiol (1987) 126:385-399.

Suadicani, P., H.O. Hein, and F. Gyntelberg. "Serum Validated Tobacco Use and Social Inequalities in Risk of Ischaemic Heart Disease." Int J Epidemiol (1994) 23:293-300.

Svetkey, L.P., L.K. George, H.A. Tyroler, P.Z. Timmons, B.M. Burchett, and D.G. Blazer. "Effects of Gender and Ethnic Group on Blood Pressure Control in the Elderly." Am J Hypertens (1996) 9:529-35.

Tell, G.S., J.F. Polak, B.J. Ward, S.J. Kittner, P.J. Savage, and J. Robbins. "Relation of Smoking with Carotid Artery Wall Thickness and Stenosis in Older Adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) Collaborative Research Group." Circulation (1994) 90:2905-8.

Teng, J.K., L.J. Lin, L.M. Tsai, C.M. Kwan, and J.H. Chen. "Acute Myocardial Infarction in Young and Very Old Chinese Adults: Clinical Characteristics and Therapeutic Implications." Int J Cardiol (1994) 44:29-36.

Tervahauta, M., J. Pekkanen, and A. Nissinen. "Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease and Total Mortality Among Elderly Men with and without Preexisting Coronary Heart Disease. Finnish Cohorts of the Seven Countries Study." J Am Coll Cardiol (1995) 26:1623-9.

Thijs, L., E. Dabrowska, D. Clement, et al. "Diurnal Blood Pressure Profile in Older Patients with Isolated Systolic Hypertension. The SYST-EUR Investigators." J Hum Hypertens (1995) 9:917-24.

Tresch, D.D., and W.S. Aronow. "Smoking and Coronary Artery Disease." Clin Geriatr Med (1996) 12:23-32.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Cardiovascular Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, Maryland: Centers for Disease Control, Office on Smoking and Health, 1984. )DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 84-5024).

Vogt, M.T., J.A. Cauley, L.H. Kuller, and S.B. Hulley. "Prevalence and Correlates of Lower Extremity Arterial Disease in Elderly Women." Am J Epidemiol (1993) 137:559-568.

Voors, A.A., B.L. van Brussel, H.W.T. Plokker, et al. "Smoking and Cardiac Events After Venous Coronary Bypass Surgery. A 15-Year Follow-up Study." Circulation (1996) 93:42-47.

Weijenberg, M.P., E.J. Feskens, and D. Kromhout. "White Blood Cell Count and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Elderly Men." Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (1996) 12:499-503.

Weintraub, W.S., L.W. Klein, P.A. Seelaus, J.B. Agarwal, and R.H. Helfant. "Importance of Total Life Consumption of Cigarettes as a Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease." Am J Cardiol (1984) 55:669-672.

Williams, M.A. "Cardiovascular Risk-Factor Reduction in Elderly Patients with Cardiac Disease." Phys Ther (1996) 76:469-80.

D. Cognitive Function

Ford, A.B., Z. Mefrouche, R.P. Friedland, and S.M. Debanne. "Smoking and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Study." J Am Geriatr Soc (1996) 44:905-9.

Herbert, L.E., P.A. Scherr, L.A. Beckett, et al. "Relation of Smoking and Low-to-Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Change in Cognitive Function: A Longitudinal Study in a Defined Community of Older Persons." Am J Epidemiol (1993) 137:881-91.

Hultsch, D.F., M. Hammer, and B.J. Small. "Age Differences in Cognitive Performance in Later Life: Relationships to Self-Reported Health and Activity Life Style." J Gerontol (1993) 48:P1-11.

Knott, V.J., and A. Harr. "Assessing the Topographic EEG Changes Associated with Aging and Acute/Long-Term Effects of Smoking." Neuropsychobiology (1996) 33:210-22.

Launer, L.J., E.J. Feskens, S. Kalmijn, and D. Kromhout. "Smoking, Drinking, and Thinking. The Zutphen Elderly Study." Am J Epidemiol (1996) 143:219-27.

Letenneur, L., J.F. Dartigues, D. Commenges, P. Barberger-Gateau, J.F. Tessier, and J.M. Orgogozo. "Tobacco Consumption and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People. A Population-Based Study." Ann Epidemiol (1994) 4:449-54.

Prince, M., G. Lewis, A. Bird, R. Blizard, and A. Mann. "A Longitudinal Study of Factors Predicting Change in Cognitive Test Scores Over Time, in an Older Hypertensive Population." Psychol Med (1996) 26:555-68.

E. Dental Disease/Oral Health

Beck, J., G.G. Koch, R.G. Rozier, and G.E. Tudor. "Prevalence and Risk Indicators for Periodontal Attachment Loss in a Population of Older Community-Dwelling Blacks and Whites." J Periodontol (1990) 61:521-528.

Beck, J., F. Kohout, and R. Hunt. "Identification of High Caries Risk Adults: Attitudes, Social Factors and Disease." Int Dent J (1988) 38:231-238.

Cruchley, A.T., D.M. Williams, P.M. Farthing, P.M. Speight, C.A. Lesch, and C.A. Squier. "Langerhans Cell Density in Normal Human Oral Mucosa and Skin: Relationship to Age, Smoking and Alcohol Consumption." J Oral Pathol Med (1994) 23:55-9.

Cumming, C.G., C. Wight, C.L. Blackwell, and D. Wray. "Denture Stomatitis in the Elderly." Oral Microbiol Immunol (1990) 5:82-5.

Grodstein F., G.A. Colditz, and M.J. Stampfer. "Post-Menopausal Hormone Use and Tooth Loss: A Prospective Study." J Am Dent Assoc (1996) 127:370-7, quiz 392.

Jette, A.M., H.A. Feldman, and S.L. Tennstedt. "Tobacco Use: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Dental Disease Among the Elderly." Am J Public Health (1993) 83:1271-6.

Kaplan, I., and D. Moskona. "A Clinical Survey of Oral Soft Tissue Lesions in Institutionalized Geriatric Patients in Israel." Gerodontology (1990) 9:59-62.

Levy, S.M., D.A. Heckert, J.D. Beck, and F.J. Kohout. "Multivariate Correlates of Periodontally Healthy Teeth in an Elderly Population." Gerodontics (1987) 3:85-88.

Locker, D. "Smoking and Oral Health in Older Adults." Can J Public Health (1992) 83:429-32.

Locker, D., and J.L. Leake. "Risk Indicators and Risk Markers for Periodontal Disease Experience in Older Adults Living Independently in Ontario, Canada." J Dent Res (1993) 72:9-17.

Norlen, P., I. Johansson, and D. Birkhed. "Impact of Medical and Life-Style Factors on Number of Teeth in 68-year-old Men in Southern Sweden." Acta Odontol Scand (1996) 54:66-74.

Osterberg, T. "Variation in Dental State in Elderly in Gothenburg." Swed Dent J Suppl (1985) 28:11-7.

Osterberg, T., P. Era, I. Gause-Nilsson, and B. Steen. "Dental State and Functional Capacity in 75-Year-Olds in Three Nordic Localities." J Oral Rehabil (1995) 22:653-60.

Osterberg, T., and D. Mellstrom. "Tobacco Smoking: A Major Risk Factor for Loss of Teeth in Three 70-year-old Cohorts." Community Dent Oral Epidemiol (1986) 14:367-370.

van Wyk, C.W., A.G. Farman, and J. Staz. "Oral Health Status of Institutionalized Cape Coloreds from the Cape Peninsula of South Africa." Community Dent Oral Epidemiol (1977) 5:179-84.

F . Diabetes

Goldberg, A.P., and P.J. Coon. "Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Elderly." Influence of Obesity and Physical Activity." Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am (1987) 16:843-865.

Ho, C.H., and T.S. Jap. "Do Smoking and Diabetes Change the Hemostatic Parameters?--A Study in the Chinese People." Thromb Res (1994) 76:569-76.

Liedberg, E., and B. M. Persson. "Age, Diabetes and Smoking in Lower Limb Amputation for Arterial Occlusive Disease." Acta Orthop Scand (1983) 54:383-388.

Mooy, J.M., P.A. Grootenhuis, H. de Vries, et al. "Prevalence and Determinants of Glucose Intolerance in a Dutch Caucasian Population. The Hoorn Study." Diabetes Care (1995) 18:1270-3.

Schumacker, M., and K. Smith. "Diabetes in Utah Among Adults." Am J Public Health (1988) 78:1195-1201.

G. DrugInteraction

Bonde, J., L.E. Pedersen, S. Bodtker, H.R. Angelo, T.L. Svendsen, and J.P. Kampmann. "The Influence of Age and Smoking on the Elimination of Disopyramide." Br J Clin Pharmacol (1985) 20:453-458.

Crowley, J.J., B.J. Cusack, S.G. Jue, J.R. Koup, B.K. Park, and R.E. Vestal. "Aging and Drug Interactions. II. Effect of Phenytoin and Smoking on the Oxidation of Theophylline and Cortisol in Healthy Men." J Pharmacol Exp Ther (1988) 245:513-23.

Hicks, R., M.W. Dysken, J.M. Davis, J. Lesser, A. Ripeckyj, and L. Lazarus. "The Pharmacokinetics of Psychotropic Medication in the Elderly: A Review." J Clin Psychiatry (1981) 42:374-85.

Moore, S.R. "Smoking and Drug Effects in Geriatric Patients." Pharmacy Inter (1986) 7:1-3.

Samaan, S., and R. Fox. "The Effect of Smoking on Theophylline Kinetics in Healthy and Asthmatic Elderly Males." J Clin Pharmacol (1989) 29:448-50.

Sellers, E.M., R.C. Frecker, and M.K. Romach. "Drug Metabolism in the Elderly: Confounding of Age Smoking, and Ethanol Effects." Drug Metab Rev (1983) 14:225-250.

Talseth, T., N.P. Boye, J. Kongerud, and J.E. Bredesen. "Aging, Cigarette Smoking and Oral Theophylline Requirement." Eur J Clin Pharmacol (1981) 21:33-37.

Todd, B. "Drugs and the Elderly: Cigarettes and Caffeine in Drug Interactions." Geriatr Nurs(NY) (1987) 8:97-98.

Trembath, P.W., D.D. Thorsborne-Palmes, B. Jarrott, J.J. Hammond, and D.M. Prinsley. "Theophylline Pharmacokinetics in Patients from a Geriatric Hospital: Influence of Cigarette Smoking." Hum Toxicol (1986) 5:265-268.

Vestal, R.E., and A.J. Wood. "Influence of Age and Smoking on Drug Kinetics in Man: Studies Using Model Compounds." Clin Pharmacokinet (1980) 5:309-19.

Vestal, R.E., A.J. Wood, R.A. Branch, D.G. Shand, and G.R. Wilkinson. "Effects of Age and Cigarette Smoking on Propranolol Disposition." Clin Pharmacol Ther (1979) 26:8-15.

Vestal, R.E., B.J. Cusack, J.J. Crowley, and C.M. Loi. "Aging and the Response to Inhibition and Induction of Theophylline Metabolism." Exp Gerontol (1993) 28:421-33.

Vestal, R.E., B.J. Cusack, G.D. Mercer, G.W. Dawson, and B.K. Park. "Aging and Drug Interactions. I. Effect of Cimetidine and Smoking on the Oxidation of Theophylline and Cortisol in Healthy Men." J Pharmacol Exp Ther (1987) 241:488-500.

H. Endocrine/Thyroid/Sexual

Eden, S., R. Jagenburg, G. Lindstedt, P.A. Lundberg, and D. Mellstrom. "Thyroregulatory Changes Associated with Smoking in 70-year-old Men." Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) (1984) 21:605-10.

Mulligan, T. and P.G. Katz. "Erectile Failure in the Aged: Evaluation and Treatment." J Am Geriatr Soc (1988) 36:54-62.

Nakagawa, S., H. Watanabe, H. Ohe, and M. Nakao. "Sexual Behavior in Japanese Males Relating to Area Occupation, Smoking, Drinking and Eating Habits." Andrologia (1990) 22:21-8.

Petersen, K., G. Lindstedt, P.A. Lundberg, C. Bengtsson, L. Lapidus, and E. Nystrom. "Thyroid Disease in Middle-aged and Elderly Swedish Women: Thyroid-Related Hormones, Thyroid Dysfunction and Goitre in Relation to Age and Smoking." J Intern Med (1991) 229:407-13.

I . Generally

Agner, E. "Smoking and Health in Old Age: A Ten-year Follow-up Study." Acta Med Scand (1985) 218:311-316.

Carethers, M. "Health Promotion in the Elderly." Am Fam Physician (1992) 45:2253-9.

Fincham, J.E. "The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Detrimental Health Effects in Elderly Smokers." J Geriatric Drug Therapy (1992) 7:5-21.

LaCroix, A.Z., and G. S. Omenn. "Older Adults and Smoking." Clin Geriatr Med (1992) 8:69-87.

Maxwell, C.J., and J.P. Hirdes. "The Prevalence of Smoking and Implications for Quality of Life Among the Community-Based Elderly." Am J Prev Med (1993) 9:338-345.

Mellstrom, D., A. Rundgren, R. Jagenburg, B. Steen, and A. Svanborg. "Tobacco Smoking, Ageing and Health Among the Elderly: A Longitudinal Population Study of 70-year-old Men and an Age Cohort Comparison." Age Ageing (1982) 11:45-58.

Novello, Antonia C. "Health Hazards of Cigarette Use." Trial (1992):46-9.

Richmond, D.E., H.E. McCracken, and J. Broad. "Older Adults and Health Lifestyle Issues: Results of a Community Study." N Z Med J (1996) 109:122-5.

"The Medical Effects of Tobacco Consumption." Sci Am (1995) 272:49.

"Two Studies Hit Smoking Impact." Safety & Health (1992) 146:57-58.

Vogt, M.T., M. McKenna, S.K. Wolfson, and L.H. Kuller. "The Relationship between Ankle Brachial Index, Other Atherosclerotic Disease, Diabetes, Smoking and Mortality in Older Men and Women." Atherosclerosis (1993) 101:191-202.

J. Lung Function and Disease

Burr, M.L., and R.M. Holliday. "Why is Chest Disease So Common in South Wales? Smoking, Social Class, and Lung Function: A Survey of Elderly Men in Two Areas." J Epidemiol Community Health (1987) 4:140-144.

Burr, M.L., K.M. Phillips, and D.N. Hurst. "Lung Function in the Elderly." Thorax (1985) 50:54-59.

Chang, J.T., M.B. Moran, D.W. Cugell, and J.R. Webster, Jr. "COPD in the Elderly. A Reversible Cause of Functional Impairment." Chest (1995) 108:736-40.

Davey, P.G. "Efficacy of Temafloxacin Versus Ciprofloxacin or Amoxicillin for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Smokers and the Elderly." Am J Med (1991) 91:101S-105S.

Di Giorgio, A., P. Arnone, G. Casali, A. Canavese, C. Cardini, R. Specialse, and M. Zerilli. ["Surgical Excision of Lung Neoplasms in the Elderly. Immediate Results."] Minerva Chir (1994) 49:917-27. [Published in Italian.]

Dow, L., D. Coggon, M.J. Campbell, C. Osmond, and S.T. Holgate. "The Interaction between Immunoglobulin E and Smoking in Airflow Obstruction in the Elderly." Am Rev Respir Dis (1992) 146:402-7.

Dow, L., D. Coggon, and S.T. Holgate. "Respiratory Symptoms as Predictors of Airways Lability in an Elderly Population." Respir Med (1992) 86:27-32.

Dow, L., D. Coggon, C. Osmond, and S.T. Holgate. "A Population Survey of Respiratory Symptoms in the Elderly." Eur Respir J (1991) 4:267-72.

Dow, L., M. Tracey, A. Villor, et al. "Does Dietary Intake of Vitamins C and E Influence Lung Function in Older People?" Am J Respir Crit Care Med (1996) 154:1401-4.

Enright, P.L, R.A. Kronmal, M.W. Higgins, M.B. Schenker, and E.F. Haponik. "Prevalence and Correlates of Respiratory Symptoms and Disease in the Elderly. Cardiovascular Health Study." Chest (1994) 106:827-34.

Enright, P.L., R.A. Kronmal, T.A. Manolio, M.B. Schenker, and R.E. Hyatt. "Respiratory Muscle Strength in the Elderly. Correlates and Reference Values. Cardiovascular Health Study Research Group." Am J Respir Crit Care Med (1994) 149:430-8.

Frette, C., E. Barrett-Connor, and J.L. Clausen. “Effect of Active and Passive Smoking on Ventilatory Function in Elderly Men and Women.” Am J Epidemiol (1996) 143:757-765.

Gillooly, M., and D. Lamb. "Microscopic Emphysema in Relation to Age and Smoking Habit." Thorax (1993) 48:491-5.

Gregg, I., and A.J. Nunn. "Peak Expiratory Flow in Symptomless Elderly Smokers and Ex-Smokers." BMJ (1989) 298:1071-2.

Higgins, M.W., P.L. Enright, R.A. Kronmal, M.B. Schenker, H. Anton-Culver, and M. Lyles. "Smoking and Lung Function in Elderly Men and Women. The Cardiovascular Health Study." JAMA (1993) 269:2741-8.

Horsley, J.R., I.J. Sterling, W.E. Waters, and J.B. Howell. "Respiratory Symptoms Among Elderly People in New Forest Area as Assessed by Postal Questionnaire." Age Ageing (1991) 20:325-31.

Isoaho, R., H. Puolijoki, E. Huhti, S.L. Kivela, and E. Tala. "Prevalence of Asthma in Elderly Finns." J Clin Epidemiol (1994) 47:1109-18.

Isoaho, R., H. Puolijoki, E. Huhti, S.L. Kivela, P. Laippala, and E. Tala. "Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Elderly Finns." Respir Med (1994) 88:571-80.

Jedrychowski, W., B. Tobiasz-Adamszyk, S. Sek, E. Mroz, and J. Cecek. [Effect of Parental Longevity and Smoking on the Pulmonary Function in Elderly Persons.] Pneumonol Pol (1990) 58:192-8. [Published in Polish]

Kondo, T., S. Tagami, A. Yoshioka, M. Nishimura, and Y. Kawakami. "Current Smoking of Elderly Men Reduces Antioxidants in Alveolar Macrophages." Am J Respir Crit Care Med (1994) 149:178-82.

Lai, C.K., S.C. Ho, J. Lau, et al. "Respiratory Symptoms in Elderly Chinese Living in Hong Kong." Eur Respir J (1995) 8:2055-61.

Mazza, A., P. Spolaore, G. Colangeli, G. Ginocchio, and E. Casiglia. [The Reduction of Respiratory Function is an Independent Risk Factor in the Elderly] Cardiologia (1995) 40:241-5. [Published in Italian.]

Menezes, A.M.B., C.G. Victora, and M. Rigatto. "Chronic Bronchitis and the Type of Cigarette Smoked." Int J Epidemiol (1995) 24:95-99.

Morris, R.D., and R.L. Munasinghe. "Geographic Variability in Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease Among the Elderly in the United States." Chest (1994) 106:1172-81.

Morrow, P.E., M.J. Utell, M.A. Bauer, et al. "Pulmonary Performance of Elderly Normal Subjects and Subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exposed to 0.3ppm Nitrogen Dioxide." Am Rev Respir Dis (1992) 145:291-300.

Nicholson, K.G., J. Kent, V. Hammersley, and E. Cancio. "Risk-Factors for Lower Respiratory Complications of Rhinovirus Infections in Elderly People Living in the Community--Prospective Cohort Study." BMJ (1996) 313:1119-1123.

Nisar, M. C.S. Williams, D. Ashby, and P.D. Davies. "Tuberculin Testing in Residential Homes for the Elderly." Thorax (1993) 48:1257-60.

Ohmit, S.E., A. Furumoto-Dawson, A. S. Monto, and N. Fasano. "Influenza Vaccine Use Among an Elderly Population in a Community Intervention." Am J Prev Med (1995) 11:271-6.

O'Rourke, M.A., and J. Crawford. "Lung Cancer in the Elderly." Clin Geriatr Med (1987) 3:595-623.

Pyhala, R., J. Takala, A. Turunen, and K. Aho. "Smoking and Influenza in the Elderly: A Sero-Epidemiological Study." Eur J Respir Dis (1983) 64:212-216.

Sherman, C.B. "Late-onset Asthma: Making the Diagnosis, Choosing Drug Therapy." Geriatrics (1995) 50:24-6, 29-30, 33.

Sherrill, D.L., M.D. Lebowitz, R.J. Knudson, and B. Burrows. "Longitudinal Methods for Describing the Relationship Between Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Symptoms and Smoking in Elderly Subjects: The Tucson Study." Eur Respir J (1993) 6:342-8.

Sparrow, D., G.T. O'Connor, B. Rosner, M.R. Segal, and S.T. Weiss. "The Influence of Age and Level of Pulmonary Function on Nonspecific Airway Responsiveness. The Normative Aging Study." Ann Rev Respir Dis (1991) 143:978-82.

Sparrow, D., G.T. O'Connor, R.C. Basner, B. Rosner, and S.T. Weiss. "Predictors of the New Onset of Wheezing Among Middle-aged and Older Men." The Normative Aging Study." Am Rev Respir Dis (1993) 147:367-71.

Strom, K., L. Janzon, B.S. Hanson, B. Hedblad, H.E. Rosberg, and M. Arborelius. "Alcohol Consumption Modifies the Total Lung Capacity in Smokers." Respiration (1996) 63:66-72.

Tammilehto, L., and K. Tuomi. "Work Characteristics and Lifestyle as Predictors in the Development of Chronic Non-specific Lung Disease Among Elderly Municipal Employees." Occup Environ Med (1995) 52:134-8.

Woo, J., and J. Pang. "Spirometry in Healthy Elderly Chinese." Thorax (1988) 43:617-20.

K. Mortality

Abramson, J.H. "The Hazard of Persistent Cigarette Smoking in Later Life." Am J Med Sci (1977) 274:35-43.

Casiglia, E., P. Spolaore, G. Ginocchio, et al. "Predictors of Mortality in Very Old Subjects Aged 80 Years or Over." Eur J Epidemiol (1993) 9:577-86.

Cook, N.R., D.A. Evans, P.A. Scherr, F.E. Speizer, J.O. Taylor, and C.H. Hennekens. "Peak Expiratory Flow Rate and 5-Year Mortality in an Elderly Population." Am J Epidemiol (1991) 133:784-94.

Davis, M.A., J.M. Neuhaus, D.J. Moritz, D. Lein, J.D. Barclay, and S.P. Murphy. "Health Behaviors and Survival Among Middle-aged and Older Men and Women in NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study." Prev Med (1994) 23:369-76.

Doll, R., R. Peto, K. Wheatley, R. Gray, and I. Sutherland. "Mortality in Relation to Smoking: 40 Years' Observations on Male British Doctors." BMJ (1994) 309:901-11.

Dontas, A.S., N. Toupadaki, A. Tzonou, and P. Kasviki-Charvati. "Survival in the Oldest Old: Death Risk Factors in Old and Very Old Subjects." J Aging Health(1996) 8:220-237.

Dontas, A.S., A. Tzonou, P. Kasviki-Charvati, G.L. Georgiades, G. Christakis, and D. Trichopoulos. "Survival in a Residential Home: An Eleven-Year Longitudinal Study." J Am Geriatr Soc (1991) 39:641-9.

Goldberg, R.J., M. Larson, and D. Levy. "Factors Associated with Survival to 75 Years of Age in Middle-aged Men and Women." Arch Intern Med (1996) 156:505-509.

He, G.W., T.E. Acuff, W.H. Ryan, and M.J. Mack. "Risk Factors for Operative Mortality in Elderly Patients Undergoing Internal Mammary Artery Grafting." Ann Thorac Surg (1994) 57:1453-60.

Kaplan, G.A., T.E. Seeman, R.D. Cohen, L.P. Knudsen, and J. Guralnik. "Mortality Among the Elderly in the Alameda County Study: Behavioral and Demographic Risk Factors." Am J Public Health (1987) 77:307-312.

Kaplan, R.M., D.L. Wingard, J.B. McPhillips, D. Williams-Jones, and E. Barrett-Connor. "Cigarette Smoking, Mortality, Institutional and Community-Based Care Utilization in an Adult Community." J Community Health (1992) 17:53-60.

Kim, I.S., H. Ohrr, S.H. Jee, H. Kim, and Y. Lee. "Smoking and Total Mortality: Kangwha Cohort Study, 6-Year Follow-up." Yosei Med J (1993) 34:212-22.

Kunst, A.E., C.W. Looman, and J.P. Mackenbach. "Determinants of Regional Differences in Lung Cancer Mortality in The Netherlands." Soc Sci Med (1993) 37:623-31.

LaCroix, A.Z., J. Lang, P. Scherr, et al. "Smoking and Mortality Among Older Men and Women in Three Communities." New Eng J Med (1991) 324:1619-25.

Menotti, A., D. Kromhout, A. Nissinen, et al. "Short-Term All-Cause Mortality and Its Determinants in Elderly Male Populations in Finland, The Netherlands, and Italy: The FINE Study." Prev Med (1996) 25:319-26.

Paganini-Hill, A. and G. Hsu. "Smoking and Mortality among Residents of a California Retirement Community." Am J Public Health (1994) 84:992-5.

Rosenwaike, I. "Causes of Death Among Elderly Jews in New York City, 1979-1981." Int J Epidemiol (1994) 23:327-32.

Ruigomez, A., J. Alonzo, and J.M. Anto. "Relationship of Health Behaviours to Five-Year Mortality in an Elderly Cohort." Age Ageing (1995) 24:113-9.

Salive, M.E., R.B. Wallace, A.M. Ostfeld, S. Satterfield, and R.J. Havlik. "Risk Factors for Septicemia-Associated Mortality in Older Adults." Public Health Rep (1993) 108:447-53.

Seltzer, C.C. "Cigarette Smoking and Longevity in the Elderly." Med Counterpoint (1974) 6:29-33.

Simons, L.A., J. McCallum, Y. Priedlander, and J. Simons. "Predictors of Mortality in the Prospective Dubbo Study of Australian Elderly." Aust N Z J Med (1996) 26:40-8.

Thun, M.J., C.A. Day-Lally, E.E. Calle, W.D. Flanders, and C.W. Heath, Jr. "Excess Mortality Among Cigarette Smokers: Changes in a 20-Year Interval." Am J Public Health (1995) 85:1223-1230.

Yuan, J., R.K. Ross, X.L. Wang, Y.T. Gao, B.E. Henderson, and M.C. Yu. "Morbidity and Mortality in Relation to Cigarette Smoking in Shanghai, China." JAMA (1996) 275:1646-1650.

Zhang, X.H., S. Sasaki, and H. Kesteloot. "Changes in the Sex Ratio of Stroke Mortality in the Period of 1955 Through 1990." Stroke (1995) 26:1774-80.

L. Muscle, Bone and Mobility

Ali, N.S., and K.R. Twibell. "Barriers to Osteoporosis Prevention in Perimenopausal and Elderly Women." Geriatr Nurs (1994) 15:201-8.

Bellantoni, M.F. "Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment." Am Fam Physician (1996) 54:986-92, 995-6.

Cumming, R.G., and R.J. Klineberg. "Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Hip Fractures in the Elderly." Am J Epidemiol (1994) 139:493-503.

Egger P., S. Duggleby, R. Hobbs, C. Fall, and C. Cooper. "Cigarette Smoking and Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly." J Epidemiol Community Health (1996) 50:47-50.

Ensrud, K.E., M.C. Nevitt, C. Yunis, et al. "Correlates of Impaired Function in Older Women." J Am Geriatrics Soc (1994) 42:481-489.

Flicker, L., J.L. Hopper, L. Rodgers, B. Kaymakci, R.M. Green, and J.D. Wark. "Bone-Density Determinants in Elderly Women. A Twin Study." J Bone Miner Res (1995) 10:1607-1613.

Hollenbach, K.A., E. Barrett-Connor, S.L. Edelstein, and T. Holbrook. "Cigarette Smoking and Bone Mineral Density in Older Men and Women." Am J Public Health (1993) 83:1265-70.

Hu, H., M. Payton, S. Korrick, et al. "Determinants of Bone and Blood Lead Levels Among Community-Exposed Middle-aged to Elderly Men. The Normative Aging Study." Am J Epidemiol (1996) 144:749-59.

Johansson, C., and D. Mellstrom. "An Earlier Fracture as a Risk Factor for New Fracture and Its Association with Smoking and Menopausal Age in Women." Maturitas (1996) 24:97-106.

Katzenstein, L. "Reducing Hip Fracture Risk." American Health (1995) 14:8-9.

Kiel, D.P., Y. Zhang, M.T. Hannan, J.J. Anderson, J.A. Baron, and D.T. Felson. "The Effect of Smoking at Different Life Stages on Bone Mineral Density in Elderly Men and Women." Osteoporos Int (1996) 6:240-8.

LaCroix, A.Z., J.M. Guralnik, L.F. Berkman, R.B. Wallace, and S. Satterfield. "Maintaining Mobility in Late Life: II. Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index." Am J Epidemiol (1993) 137:858-869.

LaVecchia, C.L, E. Negri, F. Levi, and J.A. Baron. "Cigarette Smoking, Body Mass and Other Risk Factors for Fractures of the Hip in Women." Int J Epidemiol (1991) 20:671-677.

Mellstrom, D., C. Johansson, O. Johnell, et al. "Osteoporosis, Metabolic Aberrations, and Increased Risk for Vertebral Fractures after Partial Gastrectomy." Calcif Tissue Int (1993) 53:370-7.

Nelson, H.D., M.C. Nevitt, and J.C. Scott. "Smoking, Alcohol, and Neuromuscular and Physical Function of Older Women." JAMA (1994) 272:1825-31.

Nguyen, T.V., P.J. Kelly, P.N. Sambrook, C. Gilbert, N.A. Pocock, and J.A. Eisman. "Lifestyle Factors and Bone Density in the Elderly: Implications for Osteoporosis Prevention." J Bone Miner Res (1994) 9:1339-46.

Petridou, E., A. Polychronopoulou, E. Dounis, P. Tsampira, K. Revinthi, and D. Trichopoulos. "Risk Factors for Injuries Among the Elderly in Greece." Accid Anal Prev (1996) 28:333-8.

Roijen, L.E., W.H. Coppelmans, H.C. de Vet, and J.F. Fiolet. [Effects of Some Factors in the Development of Locomotive Disorders in the Elderly.] Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr (1996) 27:120-3.

Rundgren, A., and D. Mellstrom. "The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on the Bone Mineral Content of the Ageing Skeleton." Mech Ageing Dev (1984) 28:273-277.

Satariano, W.A., G.N. Delorenze, D. Reed, and E.L. Schneider. "Imbalance in an Older Population--An Epidemiologic Analysis." J Aging Health (1996) 8:334-358.

Slade, J., G. Spilich, and H.D. Nelson. "Smoking, Alcohol, and Neuromuscular Function in Older Women." [Letter.] JAMA (1995) 273:1333-1334.

Slemenda, C. W., S.L. Hui, C. Longcope, and C.C. Johnston, Jr. "Cigarette Smoking, Obesity, and Bone Mass." J Bone Miner Res (1989) 4:737-41.

van Daele, P.L., H. Burger, D. Algra, et al. "Age-Associated Changes in Ultrasound Measurements of the Calcaneus in Men and Women: The Rotterdam Study." J Bone Miner Res (1994) 9:1751-7.

Vogt, M.T., J.A. Cauley, J.C. Scott, L.H. Kuller, and W.S. Browner. "Smoking and Mortality Among Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures." Arch Intern Med (1996) 156:630-6.

Ward, J.A., S.R. Lord, P. Williams, K. Anstey, and E. Zivanovic. "Physiologic, Health and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Femoral Neck Bone Density in Older Women." Bone (1995) 16:373S-378S.

Wark, J.D. "Osteoporotic Fractures: Background and Prevention Strategies." Maturitas (1996) 23:193-207.

Wienpahl, J., A.Z. LaCroix, L. White et al. "Body Mass Index, Alcohol Use, and Smoking in Relation to Hip Fracture in Older Populations." [Abstract.] Am J Epidemiol (1990) 132:753-4.

Williams, A.R., N.S. Weiss, C.L. Ure, J. Ballard, and J.R. Daling. "Effect of Weight, Smoking and Estrogen Use on the Risk of Hip and Forearm Fractures in Postmenopausal Women." Obstet Gynecol (1982) 60:695-9.

M. Nutrition

Chauhan, J. "Relationships Between Sour and Salt Taste Perception and Selected Subject Attributes." J Am Diet Assoc (1989) 89:652-8.

Heseker, H., and R. Schneider. "Requirement and Supply of Vitamin C, E and Beta-Carotene for Elderly Men and Women." Eur J Clin Nutr (1994) 48:118-27.

Itoh, R., and Y. Suyama. "Sociodemographic Factors and Life-Styles Affecting Micronutrient Status in an Apparently Healthy Elderly Japanese Population." J Nutr Elder (1995) 14:39-54.

Ortega, R.M., A.M. Lopez-Sobaler, M.M. Gonzalez-Gross, et al. "Influence of Smoking on Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations in a Group of Elderly Spanish Men." J Am Coll Nutr (1994) 13:68-72.

Posner, B.M., A. Jette, C. Smigelski, D. Miller, and P. Mitchell. "Nutritional Risk in New England Elders." J Gerontol (1994) 49:M123-32.

Suyama, Y. and R. Itoh. "Multivariate Analysis of Dietary Habits in 931 Elderly Japanese Males: Smoking, Food Frequency and Food Preference." J Nutr Elder (1992) 12:1-12.

Tucker, K.L., G.E. Dallal, and D. Rush. "Dietary Patterns of Elderly Boston-area Residents Defined by Cluster Analysis." J Am Diet Assoc (1992) 92:1487-91.

Zipp, A., and C.A. Holcomb. "Living Arrangements and Nutrient Intakes of Healthy Women Age 65 and Older: A Study in Manhattan, Kansas." J Nutr Elder (1992) 11:1-18.

N. Peptic Ulcers and Gastrointestinal Disorders

Cryer, B., E. Lee, and M. Feldman. "Factors Influencing Gastroduodenal Mucosal Prostaglandin Concentrations: Roles of Smoking and Aging." Ann Intern Med (1992) 116:636-640.

Feldman, M., B. Cryer, K.E. MacArthur, B.A. Huet, and E. Lee. "Effects of Aging and Gastritis on Gastric Acid and Pepsin Secretion in Humans: A Prospective Study." Gastroenterology (1996) 110:1043-52.

Jarczyk, G., and W. Jedrzejczyk. [Epidemiologic and Demographic Characteristics of Patients with Perforated Duodenal Ulcer]. Pol Tyg Lek (1996) 51:215-8. [Published in Polish]

Kurata, J.H., and A.N. Nogawa. "Metanalysis of Risk-Factors for Peptic Ulcer Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, Helicobacter-Pylori, and Smoking." J Clin Gastroenterol (1997) 24:2-17.

Schoon, I., D. Mellstrom, A. Oden, and Bo Ytterberg. "Peptic Ulcer Disease in Older Age Groups in Gothenburg in 1985: The Association with Smoking." Age Ageing (1991) 20:371-376.

Walt, R., B. Katschinski, R. Logan, J. Ashley, and M. Langman. "Rising Frequency of Ulcer Perforation in Elderly People in the United Kingdom." Lancet (1986) 1:489-92.

O. Safety

Barillo D.J., and R. Goode. "Fire Fatality Study: Demographics of Fire Victims." Burns (1996) 22:85-8.

Drinka. "Nursing Home Residents Who are Unsafe Smokers and Require Supervision While Smoking." [Letter.] J Am Geriatr Soc (1994) 42:689.

Jaeger, T.W. "Smoke-Free Environments Protect Resident Rights, Promote Safety." Provider (1993) 19:45-46.

Sataline, L. "The Effect of Smoking on Elderly Drivers." [Letter.] Arch Intern Med (1992) 152:2347-8.

Tremblay, K.J. "Blaze Started by Careless Smoking Damages Adult Living Facility." NFPA J (1995) 89:35-6.

P. Skin and Hair

"Cigarette Smoking and Facial Wrinkling." [Letter; comment.] Ann Intern Med (1991) 115:659-60.

Daniell, H.W. "Smoker's Wrinkles." Ann Intern Med (1971) 75:873-880.

Daniell, H.W. "Smoking and Wrinkling." [Letter; comment.] Arch Dermatol (1993) 129:907.

Ernster, V.L., D. Grady, R. Miike, K. Black, J. Selby, and K. Kerlikowske. "Facial Wrinkling in Men and Women, by Smoking Status." Am J Public Health (1995) 85:78-82.

Fleischer, A.B., P.M. Ohare, R.B. D'Agostino, et al. "Tobacco Smoking is Associated in a Relatively Small but Significant Way to Facial Wrinkling." [Meeting abstract.] J Invest Dermatol (1997) 108:22.

Kadunce, D.P., R. Burr, R. Gress, R. Kanner, J.L. Lyon, and J.J. Zone. "Cigarette Smoking: Risk Factor for Premature Facial Wrinkling." Ann Intern Med (1991) 114:840-4.

Lange, P., and P. Schnohr. "The Relationship between Facial Wrinkling and Airflow Obstruction." Int J Dermatol (1994) 33:123-6.

Mosley, J.G., and A.C.C. Gibbs. "Premature Grey Hair and Hair Loss Among Smokers: A New Opportunity for Health Education?" BMJ (1996) 313:1616.

Peng, Y.M., Y. Peng, T. Moon, and D. Roe. "Effect of Multivitamin Supplements and Smoking on Levels of Carotenoids, Retinoids and Tocopherols in Human Plasma, Skin and Buccal Mucosal Cells." [Meeting abstract.] Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (1993) 34:A1533 1993.

Schnohr, P., P. Lange, J. Nyboe, M. Appleyard, and G. Jensen. [Does Smoking Increase the Degree of Wrinkles on the Face? The Osterbro Study]. Ugeskr Laeger (1991) 153:660-2. [Published in Danish.]

von Kreisler, K. "Winning the War Against Wrinkles." Read Dig (1995) 146:169-170.

Q. Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

Christensen, N.J., and E.W. Jensen. "Sympathoadrenal Activity and Psychosocial Stress. The Significance of Aging, Long-Term Smoking and Stress Models." Ann N Y Acad Sci (1995) 771:640-7.

Green, B.H., J.R. Copeland, M.E. Dewey, and V. Sharma. "Risk Factors for Depression in Elderly People: A Prospective Study." Acta Psychiatr Scand (1992) 86:213-217.

R . Stroke

Aronow, W.S. "Risk Factors for Geriatric Stroke: Identification and Follow-up." Geriatrics (1990) 45:37-40, 43-4.

Aronow, W.S., H. Gutstein, N.H. Lee, and M. Edwards. "Three-Year Follow-Up of Risk Factors Correlated with New Atherothrombotic Brain Infarction in 708 Elderly Patients." Angiology (1988) 39:563-566.

Aronow, W.S., L. Starling, F. Etienne, et al. "Risk Factors for Atherothrombotic Brain Infarction in Persons Over 62 Years of Age in a Long-Term Health Care Facility." J Am Geriatr Soc (1987) 35:1-3.

Elia, G., R. Carra, N. Santangelo, et al. "Prevalence of Risk Factors in Acute Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease (CVD) in Elderly Patients from Eastern Sicily." Arch Gerontol Geriatr (1996) S5:187-90.

Fukada, H., and M. Kitani. "Cigarette Smoking is Correlated with the Periventricular Hyperintensity Grade on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging." Stroke (1996) 27:645-9.

Himmelmann, A., L Hansson, A. Svensson, P. Harmsen, C. Holmgren, and A. Svanborg. "Predictors of Stroke in the Elderly." Acta Med Scand (1988) 225:439-443.

Kamberg, M. "Stroke: The Brain Disrupted." Current Health (1989) 2 15:3-9.

Lee, T.K., Z.S. Huang, S.K. Ng, et al. "Impact of Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking on Stroke Among the Elderly in Taiwan." Stroke (1995) 26:790-4.

Liu, L.H., and L.G. Chia. [The Effects of Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Atrial Fibrillation, Transient Ischemic Attack and Smoking on Stroke in Chinese People.] Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) (1991) 47:110-5. [Published in Chinese]

Mitchell, P., J.J. Wang, W. Li, S.R. Leeder, and W. Smith. "Prevalence of Asymptomatic Retinal Emboli in an Australian Urban Community." Stroke (1997) 28:63-6.

Rogers, R.L., J.S. Meyer, B.W. Judd, and K.F. Mortel. "Abstention from Cigarette Smoking Improves Cerebral Perfusion Among Elderly Chronic Smokers." JAMA (1985) 253:2970-2974.

Yamashita, K., S. Kobayashi, S. Yamaguchi, M. Kitani, and T. Tsunematsu. "Effects of Smoking on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Normal Aged Volunteers." Gerontology (1988) 34:199-204.

S. Vision

Christen, W.G., R.J. Glynn, J.E. Manson, U.A. Ajani, and J.E. Buring. "A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Men." JAMA (1996) 276:1147-1151.

Christen, W.G., J.E. Manson, J.M. Seddon, et al. "A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Cataract in Men." JAMA (1992) 268:989-993.

Hirvela, H., H. Luukinen, and L. Laatikainen. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Lens Opacities in the Elderly in Finland. A Population-Based Study." Ophthalmology (1995) 102:108-17.

Klein, B.E., R. Klein, and L.L. Ritter. "Relationship of Drinking Alcohol and Smoking to Prevalence of Open-angle Glaucoma. The Beaver Dam Eye Study." Ophthalmology (1993) 100:1609-13.

Klein, R., B.E.K. Klein, K.L.P. Linton, and D.L. DeMets. "The Beaver Dam Eye Study: the Relation of Age-Related Maculopathy to Smoking." Am J Epidemiol (1993) 137:190-200.

"Nuclear Cataracts Associated with Smoking." Geriatrics (1989) 44:25.

Paetkau, M.E., T.A.S. Boyd, M. Grace, J. Bach-Mills, and B. Winship. "Senile Disciform Macular Degeneration and Smoking." Can J Ophthalmol (1978) 13:67-71.

Seddon, J.M., W.C. Willett, F.E. Speizer, and S.E. Hankinson. "A Prospective Study of Cigarette Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Women." JAMA (1996) 276:1141-6.

Smith, W., P. Mitchell, and S.R. Leeder. "Smoking and Age-Related Maculopathy. The Blue Mountains Eye Study." Arch Ophthalmol (1996) 114:1518-23.

Vinding, T., M. Appleyard, J. Nyboe, and G. Jensen. "Risk Factor Analysis for Atrophic and Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration. An Epidemiological Study of 1000 Aged Individuals." Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) (1992) 70:66-72.

Vingerling, J.R., A. Hofman, D.E. Grobbee, and P.T. de Jong. "Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Smoking. The Rotterdam Study." Arch Ophthalmol (1996) 114:1193-6.

West, S., B. Munoz, O.D. Schein, et al. "Cigarette Smoking and Risk for Progression of Nuclear Opacities." Arch Ophthalmol (1995) 113:1377-1380.

West, S., B. Munoz, E. Emmett, and H.R. Taylor. "Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Nuclear Cataracts." Arch Ophthalmol (1989) 107:1166-1169.


V. Economics of Tobacco Use, Tobacco-Related Disease, and Tobacco Control

Burton, L.C., D.M. Steinwachs, P.S. German, et al. "Preventive Services for the Elderly: Would Coverage Affect Utilization and Costs Under Medicare?" Am J Public Health (1995) 85:387-391.

Califano, J. "The Impact of Substance Abuse." Tob Control (1995) 4:S20.

Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Columbia University, The Cost of Substance Abuse to America's Health Care System--Report 1: Medicaid Hospital Costs (1993).

Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Columbia University, The Cost of Substance Abuse to America's Health Care System--Report 2: Medicare Hospital Costs (1994).

Freeborn, D.D., J.P. Mullooly, C.R. Pope, and B.H. McFarland. "Smoking and Consistently High Use of Medical Care Among Older HMO Members." Am J Public Health (1990) 80:603-5.

Leigh, J.P., and J.F. Fries. "Health Habits, Health Care Use and Costs in a Sample of Retirees." Inquiry (1992) 29:44-54.

McIntosh, H. "Managed Care Takes Control of Prevention and Control." J Natl Cancer Inst (1995) 87:955-958.

Office on Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, State Tobacco Control Highlights 1996 (1996).

Schauffler, H.H., R.B. D'Agostino, and W.B. Kannel. "Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly and Associated Medicare Costs: The Framingham Study." Am J Prev Med (1993) 9:146-54.

Schauffler, H.H., and M.D. Parkinson. "Health Insurance Coverage for Smoking Cessation Services." Health Educ Q (1993) 20:187.


VI. Passive Smoking

Brownson, R.C., M.C. Alavanja, E.T. Hock, and T.S. Loy. "Passive Smoking and Lung Cancer in Nonsmoking Women." Am J Public Health (1992) 82:1525:30.

Clifton, B. "Freedom Up In Smoke." Nurs Stand (1993) 7:46.

Dennis, R.J., D. Maldonado, S. Norman, E. Baena, and G. Martinez. "Woodsmoke Exposure and Risk for Obstructive Airways Disease Among Women." Chest (1996) 109:115-9.

Environmental Protection Agency, Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders (1992).

Frette, C., E. Barrett-Connor, and J.L. Clausen. “Effect of Active and Passive Smoking on Ventilatory Function in Elderly Men and Women.” Am J Epidemiol (1996) 143:757-765.

Inskip, H. "Cancer and the Environment." J R Soc Health (1994) 114:157-61.

Kochersberger, G., and E.C. Clipp. "Resident Smoking in Long-Term Care Facilities--Policies and Ethics." Public Health Rep (1996) 111:66-70.

Nichols. "Cleaning the Air - Many Facilities are Voluntarily Adopting Policies that Snuff Out Secondhand Smoke." Contemp Longterm Care (1995) 18:47-50.

Schwartz, A.G., P. Yang, and G.M. Swanson. "Familial Risk of Lung Cancer Among Nonsmokers and Their Relatives." Am J Epidemiol (1996) 144:554-62.

"Smoke-Free Environments Protect Resident Rights, Promote Safety." Provider (1993) 19:45-6.


VII. Politics of Tobacco Control

Barinaga-Burch, S., and J.A. Bergman. "Tobacco: A Legal and Policy Issue of the Elderly." Clearinghouse Rev (1996) 30:616-634.

Barker, J.C., L.S. Mitteness, and C.R. Wolfsen. "Smoking and Adulthood: Risky Business in a Nursing Home." J Aging Studies (1994) 8:309-326.

Cummings, K. M. "Involving Older Americans in the War on Tobacco." Cancer (1994) 74:2062-2066.

DeAbreu, D. "Implications of Smoking Bans in Long-Term Care." Prof Nurse (1994) 11:44-45.

Joseph, A.M. "Is Congress Blowing Smoke at the VA?" JAMA (1994) 272:1215-1216.

Joseph, A.M., and P.J. O'Neil. "The Department of Veterans Affairs Smoke-Free Policy." JAMA (1992) 267:87-90.

May, K. "Where There's Smoke, There May be Lawsuits." Nurs Homes Sr Citiz Care (1989) 38:5-6.

Orleans, C.T. "Reducing Tobacco Harms Among Older Adults: A Critical Agenda for Tobacco Control." Tobacco Control (1997) 6:161-163.

"Scoring Guidelines Addressing Smoking Policy for the Accreditation Manual for Long-Term Care." Jt Comm Perspect (1993) Vol. II, 13:C1-2.